Sunday, March 8, 2020
Karl Marx Essay I. General OverviewKarl Marx and Friedrich Engels strove to put into practical effect the humanitarian concept of Feuerbach. In so doing, they founded a new economic movement called Socialism. According to Marx, the supreme end of man is an immanent and material one, and consists in happiness. This material happiness must be obtained through organized collectivism. In fact, according to Marx, reality is governed by economic needs (historical materialism). Economic reality develops according to Hegel's dialectical principles; that is, reality must deny itself in order to reach a higher degree of being.In application, this principle means that the present organization of society must be destroyed (even through violent revolution, if necessary, because only through such destruction can a better political, economic, and social organization be achieved. To establish this new format of society, working men (the proletariat) must be organized and take up the struggle against the capitalists who defraud them.Karl Marx (1818-1883)Thus the actors in this drama are the social classes the proletariat is arrayed against capitalism. This struggle, according to Marx and Engels, will end in victory for the proletariat, that is, in the triumph of universal Socialism.II. Life and WorksKarl Marx (picture) was born on May 5, 1818 and died on March 14, 1883. He was a German economist, philosopher, and revolutionist whose writings form the basis of the body of ideas known as Marxism. With the aid of Friedrich Engels (picture) he produced much of the theory of modern socialism and communism. Marx's father, Heinrich, was a Jewish lawyer who had converted his family to Christianity partly in order to preserve his job in the Prussian state. Karl himself was baptized in the Evangelical church. As a student at the University of Berlin, young Marx was strongly influenced by the philosophy of...
Friday, February 21, 2020
The major operating system and network you are using on a daily basis - Essay Example First a cable based on CAT6a ( Able Infrastructure Solutions, n.d.) 1 Gbps switched network. The Second is an 802.11n wireless (Wi-Fi) network. Both networks are configured with Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) (TCP/IP), Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPV4). (Brookshear, et al., 2011) The operating system and network are adequately designed and developed to perform their tasks in our environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows OS allows for quick develop of wide and varied multithread applications. Ability to support a wide variety of hardware devices through device drivers is important in a hospital setting as is an interactive user experience through use of a GUI interface. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Combining a star and bus network topology creates a scalable network, with the ability to maintain a requirement for low amounts of down time encase of failure of devices. (Brookshear, et al., 2011) The advantages outweigh and disadvantages the Windows OS bring can be summarised as: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The advantages are outweigh such as quicker support for newer hardware, vendors availability of readymade applications and varied devices available that work with Windows vs. other OSÃ¢â¬â¢s (MNS Group, 2012) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ability to be adapted and access to a wide support knowledge base to fix problems or issues A few highlighted disadvantages to the Windows OS are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vulnerability to frequent virus or security attacks. Microsoft does offer regular security updates to protect against vulnerabilities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Closed source single source for procuring creates high acquisition cost for this OS. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Variable hardware implementation compatibilities can create high support workload (RJ Systems, 2010) (Stallings, 2005)
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
English Confessions of an Economic Hit Man - Essay Example After having left his job he wrote this book and is nowadays ahead of the movement that proclaims the increase of social, economic and ecological responsibility of businesses. After leaving his job as an economic hit man, Perkins founded the Independent Powers System, Inc. in1980 Ã¢â¬â a company in a very risky sphere Ã¢â¬â and later became the defender of the aboriginal rights in Amazonia, published several books on social responsibility, founded several non-profit organisations, among which is a famous Dream Change Coalition that, on the one hand, inspires people to achieve their goals, and on the other Ã¢â¬â invites them to be extremely careful about how their lives influence the rest of the society and our planet in the whole. All these facts make it obvious that Perkins is sincere in his book, and that it is not a purely PR campaign designed to turn attention to himself but truly precious confessions that make people aware of the crimes performed against the global community by certain structures and separate people. After all, it was not before the September 11, 2001 attacks that John Perkins decided to write about his activity as an econom ic hit man, disregarding all the threats that he had to face. Perkins was firm in his decision to share his knowledge about the contribution of the USA government and multiple global corporations into making these tragic events possible. According to John Perkins, the Ã¢â¬Å"helpÃ¢â¬ that the corporations and other organisations promised to the third-world countries, eventually turned out to be a disaster for people in these countries. Being an economic hit man, John Perkins travelled all over the world and took part in dramatic events of the modern history, including the money washing in Saudi Arabia, the defeat of the Iran Sheikh, the death of Panama President Omar Torrijos, and many others. In his
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Person centred reviews in adult services The underlying principles for this assignment are to critically evaluate my professional development in a practice placement setting and record reflections for future learning. Within this essay, I will include my reflections on the social work process of assessment, planning, intervention and review, and will critically analyse what I feel was successful and unsuccessful in each process, with efforts to identify what could be changed to enhance future practice. I will also include my knowledge, skills and values incorporated into my practice with two service users and my group work, while explaining my efforts to promote anti-oppressive practice. Throughout my assignment I will endeavour to portray my learning journey from the beginning to the end of my placement and conclude with future learning needs, to enhance my practice as a social worker. Introduction: The practice placement I acquired was a Court Childrens Officer (CCO), based at the Belfast Family Proceedings Court. It forms part of the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust. My role as a CCO, formerly known as a Child Welfare Officer, was to use my training and experience to ascertain the wishes and feelings of children and their families in private law matters. The role falls within family and child care services and determines that the childs interests remain paramount in court proceedings. As a CCO my role was to deal with cases where assistance was needed to help parties focus on the needs of their children, as opposed to continuing the incriminations as to who was responsible for the breakdown of their relationship. As a CCO I was then asked to present the information to court in oral or written report format. The CCO is used if other efforts to get the parties to reach a decision in the interests of their children have failed. This is to prevent the court process itself cont ributing to a lengthy breach in contact before it reaches a decision. As a CCO I was also responsible to act as liaison officer between the court and HSS Trusts, or other agencies (e.g. NSPCC etc) in respect of the courts decisions. Although employed by the Trust, I was responsible to the court. Before commencement of this placement I had limited understanding of the court process, and the legislation involved in private law cases. I was excited about the prospect of the experience I would gain having undertaken law and court modules, and attended court for certain flexible learning days, but I was also anxious about identifying the social work role within such a specific placement. I feel nervous and uncomfortable. Im finding the role intimidating being surrounded by legal professionals and legislation (being just a student). Im worried about having to provide oral and written evidence to the court, and perhaps having to disagree with the legal representatives views in court. I feel deskilled and anxious (PPDW: 21/01/10). After this initial anxious stage I began researching private law and knowledge, and used my practice teacher and on site supervisor to ask questions. Having completed a practice placement last year I already knew of the benefits of using reflection as a crucial aspect of my practice and learning. Thompson (2005) explains that it is important that practitioners use not only established theories, but use their own knowledge and experience to meet the needs of service users. He claims that reflective practice should help us to acknowledge the important links between theory and practice and to appreciate the dangers of treating the two elements as if they were separate domains (Thompson, 2005: 147). I was anxious to identify the social work process within my placement, as it was not evident on commencement. I was already familiar with the process of assessing, planning, intervention and review having had a previous placement with adults with learning disabilities. Within a court, however, this was very different, as a direction of the court determined my involvement with service users. SchÃ ¶n (1987) identifies that more than a process is needed with service users practitioners need to incorporate experience, skills and intuition for outcomes to be successful. The knowledge and skills that I identified, within my Individual learning plan, were skills in working with children, assertiveness skills, report writing and presenting skills, organisational skills, and group facilitation skills. I also wanted to enhance my value base as my previous placement helped me challenge issues around learning disabilities and the current placement is a very different setting. I wanted to devel op my values around childrens feelings about parental separation, and also working in partnership with children to ascertain their wishes and feelings about contact issues. I have outlined below the three cases I intend to use that will help identify my professional development within my placement setting. I will use these to provide an analysis of how my knowledge, skills and values have been developed through the social work process. Family C: Polish origin Child C (Age 7) currently resides with her father. The parental relationship lasted for seven years. Mother (Ms C) moved out of the family home to gain alternative accommodation when the relationship broke down. Ms C and the childs contact have been very sporadic since. Contact has not taken place since December 2009. Mr C is concerned with Ms Cs new accommodation being unsuitable for the childs safety staying overnight claiming alcohol misuse and the child coming home smelling of smoke. Ms C requires an interpreter and is seeking a Contact Order. As directed by the court I carried out an assessment of Ms Cs home, and also used mediation and counselling when meeting with the parties to focus on the childs best interests. The childs wishes and feelings were also ascertained. Family E: Child E (14) currently resides with his father (Mr E). Mother (Ms E) is seeking a Residence Order. Father currently resides with the child in a family hostel provided by the Belfast Housing Executive, which Ms E is concerned about. Court direction stipulated me to ascertain the childs wishes and feelings about residence with his father and contact with his mother. In addition to this I used mediation as an intervention to try to help the parties reach agreement about the child. I concluded my work with the family using a Person Centred Review with Child E to determine if the plans implemented earlier in my practice were working, and what he would like to change when his case was due for review in court. Group Work: My group work consisted of working with teenage girls at a high school in North Belfast; they were aged 14/15. I worked alongside the Health for Youth through Peer Education (HYPE) team who regularly visit schools to promote sexual health awareness. I co-facilitated this group and worked to educate the group about sexual health and relationships. This was to promote the need for the provision of accurate information to prevent teenage pregnancies and STIs, which have been highlighted as statistically higher in this area of Northern Ireland. Preparation of placement As indicated above, to prepare for this placement, I began by developing my knowledge base around the court setting and private law, so that I could be accountable to the court and the Trust for my actions. Trevithick (2000:162) claims to be accountable denotes professionalism by using knowledge, skills and qualifications, and adhering to values and ethics when serving a client. I began to tune in to the placement setting using knowledge, skills and values, with legislation such as The Children (NI) Order 1995, The Family Law Act (NI) 2001 and The Human Rights Act 1998. I tuned into the court setting and the rights of the service users who used it. Article 3 of the Children (NI) Order 1995 claims that the court should act in the best interests of the child, and I was interested in seeing if this occurred or if parental interests were considered higher. I tuned into the effects that divorce and separation have on children, and focused on gaining knowledge on how to minimize the negative impact this may have on children. The issue of contact in private law proceedings is a complex subject which raises questions of rights, responsibilities and ownership of children (Kroll, 2000: 217). I was initially interested in researching if children knowing both parents were in their best interests, and why. Having had a placement with adults and learning disabilities last year I had reflected on the medical model versus the social model of disability, this placement was very different in that it would be the a legal context versus the social work role. I found this initially difficult as the legal obligations of the court over-shadowed the social work process. Court directions dictated the aspects of work to be done, which I found difficult as service user needs were not necessarily established and met. Assessment: Ms Cs assessment required me to meet with her, discuss issues regarding contact with her child, and investigate her living environment to determine if it was suitable for the child to have contact in. Prior to Ms Cs assessment it was necessary for me to tune in to contact disputes between parents. I recognised that there is significant animosity with both parties, but that having contact with both parents is in the childs best interests to promote for attachment, identity and positive relationships. To initiate Ms Cs assessment I had received court directions, a referral and met with her legal advisor. I was at this time I was informed that Ms C was Polish and required an interpreter. The Human Rights Act 1998 and the Race Relations Amendment Act 2000 both stipulate that an interpreter should be provided for health services to promote anti-discriminative practice and equal opportunities. I was then required to make a referral to the Trust interpreting service, and they informed me that they would make initial contact with Ms C. I found this unnerving, as the interpreter would be making first contact with the service user, and I would have liked the opportunity to explain my role. Having carried out previous assessments, I knew that communication was essential for the assessment and central to the process of gathering information and empowering service users (Watson and West, 2006), therefore to not be able to make initial contact with a service user I found to be restrictive and stressful. On initial contact with Ms C (and the interpreter) communication was difficult to establish. I found that by communicating through an interpreter I was limited in gathering information. I found it difficult to concentrate on Ms C, especially observing body language and tone of voice; instead I focused on the interpreter and actively listening to her. Ms C came across as frustrated and disengaged, showing signs of closed body language. I felt empathetic to Ms C because of the court process she was involved in, and the fact that she had to go to court to gain contact with her child. I felt the initial meeting with Ms C was not as successful as I had hoped, I was not able to discuss the issues affecting her, and unable to establish an effective working relationship due to the barrier on an interpreter. I left the meeting feeling deskilled and questioning my practice. On reflection, I should have provided more time to Ms C due to the language obstacle and gathered more information on her issues. I should have focused on Ms C and not the interpreter, and used the interpreter more effectively to establish a relationship. For future learning I will endeavour to use these reflections. The next part of Ms Cs assessment was her home assessment. I was initially reluctant to carry out a home assessment, as I had no previous experience, and did not know what was classed as an unsafe environment for children. I began tuning in and identified that a home assessment required strong observational skills for child protection concerns. I also discussed the home assessment with my practice teacher and on site supervisor for aspects I should be concerned about within the home. It was indicated that a safe environment for a child did not have to be overly clean, just safe considering where the child sleeps, fire hazards, is there evidence of drug or alcohol use, or smelling of smoke (as Mr C alleges). On entering Ms Cs home, as the interpreter had not arrived yet, I was reluctant to try and converse with Ms C. Ms C spoke limited English, and I did not want to confuse or alarm her by trying to discuss the case issues. However, I did try to use body language and facial expressions to reach for feelings and try to build a rapport by asking general questions about weather and work etc. I feel this helped our relationship, and helped me empathise about how difficult it must be to not be able to communicate effectively. By the time the interpreter had arrived I felt more at ease with Ms C, and addressed her (as opposed to the interpreter) with non-verbal cues such as nodding and body language. I felt more comfortable talking with Ms C, I felt more able to understand her frustrations at the court process, her ex-partner and his allegations. Prior to the assessment of the home I had gained stereotypical perceptions about Ms Cs home. I thought that the house, as it was in a working class area, would be unclean and neglected. However, the assessment of the home, using observational skills, indicated no child protection concerns, a clean environment for a child, and Mr Cs allegations unfounded. On reflection of my perceptions I feel I was oppressive to Ms C having been so judgemental, and I felt guilty about my opinions having been class discriminatory. Throughout the assessment with Ms C I found that by using an interpreter Ms C was able to stay informed and in control over her situation (Watson and West, 2006). I feel that by working with Ms C has helped my challenge my future practice with individuals who are non-English speakers. It will help me consider the needs of the service user, before judging them solely on language or their country of origin to provide equal opportunities. I now feel interpreters are required for a balance of power between the worker and service user, and promote anti-discriminatory practice. Planning: According to Parker and Bradley (2008: 72) Planning as part of the social work process is a method of continually reviewing and assessing the needs of all individual service users. It is based upon the assessment and identifies what needs to be done and what the outcome may be if it is completed. Prior to the beginning of placement I had limited experience of planning, or group work. It was important for me understand the facilitation and communication skills needed for successful group work, and help to develop my understanding of group dynamics, group control, and peer pressure for this age group. The key purpose of planning the group was to enable the young people to develop their knowledge and skills to be able to make informed decisions and choices about personal relationships and sexual health. I began preparing for the planning stage of the social work process by meeting with the HYPE team and researching their work. I was interested in the sexual health training for young people at school, as my own experience at school showed that the information was often limited, and I was interesting in finding out if it had been challenged. I then began by tuning in to how I wanted to proceed through the planning process, and researching the topics of the different sessions as I considered I had limited knowledge on sexual health awareness. As I had to plan every week separately it was important to tune in to each and use knowledge, such as group work skills to inform my practice. During initial sessions I noted how group members were quiet and withdrawn, this was important to note as the subject of sexual relationships may have been embarrassing for them to discuss. I too felt uncomfortable discussing the material, as I had limited understanding of sexual health, but it was important for the group to overcome these anxieties and work through them together. I identified that ice breaking techniques were required to facilitate trust and partnership. As the sessions progressed, one of the main challenges found was that peer influence was a major issue, with some of the participants controlling other quieter members. I felt it was necessary to include all members and encouraged participation using games. However, it was important not to push individuals when they became uncomfortable, as this could cause them to withdraw and disengage, disempowering them. Another challenge was that despite time management of the sessions, inevitably there had to be flexibility. Some of the group monopolised more time than others and it was necessary to be able to alter the plans according to time restraints. I also needed to be aware of my own values when planning sexual health awareness training, as it is still regarded as a controversial issue, especially in Catholic schools with teenagers (www.famyouth.org.uk). I considered sexual health awareness to be a great benefit in schools, but obviously due to religious considerations many Catholic schools continue simply to teach abstinence as the only form of contraception. This was important to consider as the group was facilitated in a Catholic school and many of the members or their teachers could have had religious views and opinions on the sessions, creating tension or animosity. Reflecting on this parental consent had been provided for the group, but the group itself were required to take part during a free period. I consider this to be an ethical dilemma as the childrens views werent regarded as highly as their parents. If undertaking this group in future, I feel it would be necessary to ask the group if they wish to take part, and gi ve the opportunity to withdraw promoting anti-oppressive practice. Intervention: Prior to this practice placement I had limited experience using intervention methods. My previous placement focused on task centred work with service users, but in the court childrens service this could not be facilitated due to the time restrictions of the court. I had also previously used Rogerian person centred counselling which I found I could use some of the theory and apply it to this setting. After gathering a range of information from the court referral, C1 and other professionals, I began to tune in to Es case. I had been directed by the court to ascertain his wishes and feelings in regards to residence and contact arrangements, and mediate between his parents to find agreement about the childs residence. As Child E is fourteen, I felt it was necessary to research levels of development for this age group and understand, according to psychologists, what level Child E would be at emotionally, physically and psychologically. I found that Child E should be at a level of becoming more independent, having his own values, and being able to make informed choices. One of the most important issues, through mediation, was challenging my own values and becoming aware of my own stereotypical views on adults who have separated, and the effects on their children. I had to challenge the idea that Child E just wanted to reside with his father as he was the less disciplined parent, or that Child E would most likely be playing his parents off against each other to get his own way. However, by challenging these views, and working with the parties through mediation, I came to realise that E had strong views about living with his father and had a stronger attachment to him. By reflecting on my values I realised that it was oppressive to consider the child as manipulating and could have affected my work with him. I found that having to be a neutral third party in mediation was difficult, I found myself having a role as a witness, a referee and a peacekeeper trying to find common ground. Despite this I feel a third side was necessary to help the parties work through issues. I found the most difficult aspect of this role to be impartiality as I found myself empathizing more with the mother (as the child refused to live with her). However, I also understood the childs reasons behind his decision. During mediation, and in court, I also challenged my judgements on gender and the notion that the mother is the nurturer or primary care giver in the home (Posada and Jacobs, 2001). The child clearly stated that he wanted to reside with his father, and when using questioning skills to probe about this, he claimed he had a stronger bond with his father, and that his mother was continually ridiculing him. I found myself having to alter my views about attachment and mother being the primary care giver and focus on what the child wants. As the intervention progressed I used family mediation session to work through issues. I found that effective communication was principal in ascertaining Child Es wishes and feelings, and helping the parties consider his views, as opposed to their own relationship incriminations. This not only empowered E by promoting partnership, but also gave him the knowledge that the court would be considering the information he provided. Within the meeting I felt I could have paced the meeting better and made better use of silences with E, as I dominated the conversation. I consider mediation to be successful as it helped the parties focus on the needs of the child, and helped them realise that they had a childs feelings to consider instead of the adversarial relationship built from court. Review: Prior to the review process I had experience of carrying out person centred reviews (PCR) through my previous practice placement. I had previous training on PCRs and found them to be more effective than traditional reviews, due to the service user involvement. A PCR is an example of a person centred approach and the information from a review can be the foundation of a person centred plan (Bailey et al., 2009). Within the family proceedings court the purpose of reviews are to reassess interim plans, and either change them, or confirm they are working for the child(ren). In Child Es case a review was necessary to indicate if living with his father was working, and to discuss if he wanted to change anything about his interim plans, which were introduced three months earlier. Within the court childrens team a review is fundamental to consider what is in the childs best interests, assess what is working and what is not working, and how to progress (considering the childs wishes and feelings). Child centred preparatory work with Child E was fundamental to the review success as it established what was important to him (Smull and Sanderson, 2005). Reflecting on my person centred work last year; I recognised that it was important to have preparatory work with Child E as it promoted choice and options to explore. I had also recognised that the information gathered from the preparatory work could be the foundations of the review itself, especially if Child E felt embarrassed or shy speaking out in front of his family on the day of the review (Smull and Sanderson, 2005) I conducted the review with Child E and his parents present, but reflecting on this it could also have been useful including his school teacher or other friends to have a holistic approach. Throughout the review I feel I was able to engage the participants successfully using goals to focus on, and we were able to create a person centred plan for Child E. During the preparation for the review Child E had expressed that he felt he was having too much contact with his mother, and would like to limit this, he also expressed that this was an awkward subject to discuss with his mother present. I identified this in the review as child E did not wish to. I used skills such as facilitation and communication to show that Child E felt strongly about this issue, and both parents claimed they understood his view point. The review was also useful in presenting the information in court, as the child could not be present and I could advocate on his behalf. On reflection of Child Es review I feel it was a successful measure to determine what was working and not working since plans were implemented from the last court date. I had confidence in facilitating the review, but I did feel I perhaps dominated the conversation as both parents were hostile towards each other, and Child E was shy and unassertive about expressing his feelings. During future reviews I will endeavour to promote communication between parties, while empowering of the child. I will use better use of silences and encourage active involvement. Conclusion: No matter how skilled, experienced or effective we are, there are, of course, always lessons to be learned, improvements to be made and benefits to be gained from reflecting on our practice (Thompson, 2005: 146) I feel this PLO has provided me with learning opportunities and identified my learning needs. It has encouraged me to reflect on my knowledge, skills and values and ensured that I used my reflections to learn from my practice. At the beginning of placement I was concerned I would oppress the service users by having limited understanding of the court process, and unable to work effectively as a result. However, through training, help from my practice teacher and knowledge, I soon realised that the placement was about providing support, not being an expert. I feel I was able to establish a balance of the legal requirements of court and social work role, which has contributed to my learning experience and future knowledge. As my placement progressed I used tuning in and evaluations to analyse my practice, and use them to learn from. My placement has enabled me to improve my court report writing skills, presentations skills and legislation knowledge, which I consider to be invaluable for the future. In terms of future professional development, I will endeavour to challenge my stereotypical assumptions about service users, I will seek advice and guidance from more experienced members of staff, and I will use knowledge and theory to inform my practice prior to meeting service users. Future learning requires me to continue to develop skills in working with children, to use silence as a skill, as listen actively to what the service user wants. Having an opportunity to work within the court system has been invaluable, but I would also like the opportunity to have more experience working with children to enhance my knowledge, skills and values further. References: Bailey, G., Sanderson, H., Sweeney, C. and Heaney, B. (2008) Person Centred Reviews in Adult Services. Valuing People Support Team. Kroll, B. (2000) Milk Bottle, Messenger, Monitor, Spy: Childrens Experiences of Contact. Child Care in Practice: 6: 3 Parker, J., and Bradley, G. (2003) Social Work Practice: Assessment, Planning, Intervention and Review. Learning Matters Ltd. Posada, G and Jacobs, A. (2001) Child-mother attachment relationships and culture. American Psychologist. 56(10), 821-822. SchÃ ¶n, D. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Smull, M and Sanderson, H. (2005) Essential Lifestyle Planning for Everyone. The USA: Learning Community Thompson, N. (2005) Understanding Social Work: Preparing for Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Trevithick, P. (2005) Social Work Skills: A Practice Handbook (2nd Ed). Buckingham: Open University Press. Watson, D and West, J (2006) Social Work Process and Practice: Approaches, Knowledge and Skills. Basingstoke; Palgrave Macmillan Williams, P (2006) Social Work with People with Learning Disabilities. Learning Matters Ltd Webpages: http://www.famyouth.org.uk/pdfs/CondomControversy.pdf accessed 24/4/10
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The Inside Perspective Of An Outsider I read everything I could find. I spoke with natives who were visiting the United States. I studied the language diligently. I scrutinized pictures, noting each detail. Nothing prepared me for that first long walk along a Beijing street. I smelled for the first time, the smells that were to become a familiar component of my three-month stay in The People's Republic of China. I made eye contact with people who had formerly just been captured still-lifes on a reference book's glossy page. I attempted to speak my broken Chinese with people who did not care that my book at home had taught me the words for "ambassador" and "diplomat." I took my first tentative step towards cultural understanding. The China surrounding me collided with the China I ignorantly thought I had prepared myself for. I. Anthropology Allyn Maclean Stearman graduated from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1964 with a degree in Spanish. In conjunction with her foreign language major, she spent her junior year studying abroad. Her travels in Columbia certainly influenced her decision to join the Peace Corps immediately following commencement. Peace Corps placed her in Bolivia where she ended up staying for four years. Her community development work in Bolivia not only made her fall in love with the Bolivian Amazon, but also inspired in her that first recognized interest in the study of anthropology. According to James P. Spradley, the goal of anthropology is "to describe and explain the regularities and variations in social behavior" (p.10). John H. Bodley (1997) takes the purpose of anthropology one step further. He makes the claim that the acquisition of some basic anthropological tools will prep... ...etite. The long periods of loneliness and alienation alerted me to the daily struggles of an outsider attempting to be an insider. Works Cited: Bodley, J. H. (1997). Cultural Anthropology: Tribes, States, and the Global System. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. Grindal, B. & Salamona, F. (1995). Bridges to Humanity: Narratives on Anthropology and Friendship. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. Spradley, J. P. (1979). The Ethnographic Interview. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Spradley, J. P. & McCurdy, D. W. (1972). The Cultural Experience: Ethnography in Complex Society. Kingsport, TN: Kingsport Press. Stearman, A. M. (1989). Yuqui: Forest Nomads in a Changing World. Chicago, IL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Stearman, A. M. (n.d.) "Fighting the Odds for Cultural Survival: The Story of a Yuqui Development Project".
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Harry Potter Ã¢â¬â this name is familiar with all the age groups in the world today and the reason behind it is well known to all of us. The Harry Potter book series written by a single mother J. K. Rowling, who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have imagined in her wildest dreams that a story she thought of while travelling in a train, would gain so much popularity. So much so that her character and her name would become a household name across the globe! J. K. Rowling Harry Potter books came into the market in 1998. The first part called Harry Potter and the SorcererÃ¢â¬â¢s Stone gained a lot of popularity with the kids and slowly with the adults too. Due to its huge success it was converted into a motion picture as well and so the first movie when on to release in the year 2001. Subsequently the other parts (books) were out in the market and the movies started releasing as well. Of course it was after the stupendous success of the initial books that J. K. Rowling was encouraged to write on the further parts. So what is it in Harry Potter that attracts so much attention? Or what is it that makes people want to read a 600-700 pages long book again and again. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just a single book we are talking about, but every book in the series is read all over again by people repeatedly. These books tell us the story of an orphan, Harry who lives with his aunt Petunia and uncle Vernon, and not to forget his huge sized cousin Dudely with a nut sized brain. He leads a miserable life until the he turns 11, when he realizes that he is actually a wizard. He is admitted to the Horgwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. So follows his journey of magical experiences. Very unique but impressionable characters are introduced in the book in RowlingÃ¢â¬â¢s own style. The books detailing his experiences at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry have bred passion, obsession, creativity, and a new or renewed interest in reading throughout the world. JK Rowling has created an elaborate cast of characters and an environment for them to inhabit that appeals to adults and children alike. The fantasy aspect of the wizarding world expands the imagination, and transports the mind to new and exciting places; introducing magic opens new realms of possibilities within the plots. Anything could happen. Her intricate stories contain strands of the believable and unbelievable, altering the predictability that readers commonly encounter and endure in fiction. Harry Potter Movie Poster These factors contributed to the Ã¢â¬Å"Harry Potter PhenomenaÃ¢â¬ which actually swept across the world as soon as the movie series became huge hits! Young children started identifying with HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s shy but brave character. The terrifying Lord Voldemort and how he is after HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s life, after having murdered his parents when Harry was a baby. The innocence of school life along with the mixture of magic, hit childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s minds like the Magic Bullet Theory, wherein, the information seen by audiences hits their minds like bullets and penetrates within. At the same time, the themes driving the stories resonate with classic literature, offering mature readers tales that wear like a comfortable pair of shoes, while introducing younger readers to concepts they will encounter throughout their lives. The main theme of the series is the subject of many theories, including, but not limited to: good versus evil, prejudice, love, death, sacrifice, friendship and loyalty. In actuality, all of these elements contribute to the timeless nature of the stories. As and when the books started getting really famous with a specific target audience, the first big leap that was taken to expand the entire Harry Potter concept were the movies. When the movies were made they went on to click with the younger as well as the older audiences. One part after the other, the movies became darker slowly loosing the initial happy and bright appearance. They now started seeming more Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"practicalÃ¢â¬ . There was a feel of Ã¢â¬Å"there is more to Harry PotterÃ¢â¬ than what you expect. The covers of all books started having two versions, one which was bright and the other dark and mysterious so that the books would appeal to adults as well. Slowly there was Harry Potter everywhere! There was Culture Industry starting to take place because of the entire Harry Potter concept. By Culture Industry we mean that suddenly a particular thing which is extremely popular is produced in front of us in many different ways. It is Ã¢â¬Å"claimedÃ¢â¬ by the respective producers that their product is unique and adds more to a particular franchise. This concept focuses on media and marketing. Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno define the Culture Industry through its focus on the media and mass marketing. This industry is unique in that it does not reflect economic processes and essentially becomes homogenous; thus, variation is meaningless. The Culture Industry is characterized by three specific ideas: Monopoly, Mass Production, and Technology. So there is lesser control over production of certain products and lesser control in the market. Hence when a certain product is newly launched in the market, people rush to purchase it and explore that particular product. So what happens when the novelty of that product wears off? Simple, another product is launched in the market and promoted on its Ã¢â¬Å"uniqueÃ¢â¬ properties. But the actual catch here is that every product is almost similar to one another, but it is sold as being different from the previous one. Hence people are urged to buy them. This also gives them another product in place of the previous one. This is termed as Ã¢â¬Å"Pseudo SingularityÃ¢â¬ rightly meaning false singularity. This is how the culture industry also called as Mass Industry works. When Culture Industry meets something like Harry Potter, what is created is a huge successful mass industry which becomes immensely lucrative and popular. Also when the subject is like Harry, who mainly appeals to people due to his emotional appeal, his belief in friendship, love and braveness. These are the factors on which various products apart from movies like merchandise are publicized to people. There are Harry Potter theme based amusement parks, the costumes, competitions to test your HP knowledge, digital games and websites like Pottermore where you actually live HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s life. You are sorted into different houses just like in the book and you face different adventures like Harry. There are things taken from the book which will entertain and amuse people. Like the broom used to play the game Quidditch again an imaginary concept of a game like football but you are actually flying on broomsticks. Harry Potter wands, cards, hats, glasses and the famous scar which Harry have all became commodities and we are expected to purchase them. The main objective here is to make people feel like Harry himself. Examples of various Harry Potter Merchandise So even if J. K. Rowling has completed her set of books, producers still want to reap the profits from this subject. Hence, even after she officially completed her books, due to tremendous response and popular demand she wrote another book where people know what happens after Harry defeats Lord Voldemort and finishes his studies from Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. So much is the popularity of Harry Potter. Not only Harry, but other main characters like Hermoine and Ron (HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s best friends), Professor Dumbledore, Hagrid, Sirius Black etc have gained a connect with the audiences. There is a feeling generated that Ã¢â¬Å"my best friend to needs to be like RonÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"I wish I could study magicÃ¢â¬ . This feeling of longingness is usurped but the producers to contribute more to the culture industry! These feelings are then used by the people to generate more and more profits, hence trips to the castle where Harry Potter was shot are arranged. Though a particular location is not used continuously in the movies, they keep changing, but so much is the craze that people travel all the way to Scotland just to see where their Hero spent this school days. All in all a different culture itself is created and we donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize it. Such is the nature culture industry and it prevails n todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world to a much greater extent. The main feeling of Love always triumphs over the evil makes Harry Potter what it is. I would like to end my putting in a famous citation in the book- It is our choices that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities. J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, 1999, spoken by the character Albus Dumbledore This is one of the most famous quotes from the series and rightly, it is our choices that make us who we are. People chose to love Harry Potter even though the entire concept being imaginary because it has appealed to their hearts. It is this emotional factor which makes us give in to the Ã¢â¬Ëmarket and producersÃ¢â¬â¢ but in the end, they are our choices, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t they?
Friday, January 3, 2020
Article on lgbt rights. Is acceptance of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality as important as other issues like poverty, unemployment, global warming, natural disasters and proper health solutions for Ebola, Lyme that put our survival itself at risk? When meditating on this question, let us also analyse our own sexual fabric. We set the standards of our own yardsticks to measure a sexual identity as valid/ invalid, normal/ abnormal, natural/ unnatural, acceptable/ unacceptable, moral/ immoral and finally good/ bad. Perhaps, upon these standards we define and adopt a sexual identity that belongs to a privileged position. One tends to overlook these privileges and rights that are available for heterosexual people. On the other hand, the gay and lesbianÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The country can proudly claim the progressive and radical shifts made in response to the demands of lgbt community. Why even in the twenty first century people have to fight for equal rights as they encounter discrimina tions based on sexual attitude and identity in a country that stands for democratic and secular rules? There are many such questions one needs to ponder on, as we try to understand the position of the lgbt community of the US juxtaposing its achievements to the ones made in other countries across the world. Confronting homophobia, eradicating hate crimes and providing equal rights to the lgbt community are all to be considered considerable achievements of the society. The United States has been a country, that has seen innumerable radical movements and fights for lgbt acceptance, presumably progressive as we still have countries that suppress the existence of sexually marginalised community by all means. The argument that sexual orientation is already given and it is biological becomes immaterial, when considering the plethora of sexual cultures that one can find in the US. History makes the evidence of the existence of variant sexual cultures like tribadism, sadomasochism and so on, available to the society. Let us not forget that many books based on the theme of homosexuality were banned, to suppress the evidence of one such sexual